Ceramic Tiles and Porcelain Stoneware

Ceramic tile and granite – one of the oldest building and finishing materials known to mankind. But, of course, with the old times when you simply kneaded clay, molded by hand tiles, hand-same decorated as it will, and burned her at the stake, the production technology of ceramics has undergone very significant changes. To date, the production of ceramic tile (ceramic and granite) – enough high-tech process. To begin with carefully selected recipe so-called "mass" – the same one from which otpressovyvavetsya tiled "crock." Universal recipe does not exist – the fact that used for this mineral (clay, feldspar, chalk, alumina, potash, etc.) in different places have a fairly substantial differences in their natural composition, and thus differ markedly in their physical and chemical properties. The recipe is selected to all components and their combinations (compounds) had similar thermal expansion coefficient, which is very important in the firing process. After all, mainly on the phase of firing shaped geometry of the tiles. In parallel, selected glaze recipe – if it is a glazed tile (and the vast majority of those now, with the exception of granite, which, incidentally, is also available in glazed versions, and the so-called unglazed tiles metlahskaya used where, for example, requires a chemical stability, which has no frosting glazed tiles). Thermal expansion coefficient of the glaze, representing a matter of fact glass, too, must coincide with the index at the "crock", which is important for both baking and for the subsequent operation ceramic products.

Otherwise, when temperature drops more thick and massive "crock" just break off a layer of frosting – it cracked. After harvesting the masses (this is a difficult and responsible process, including thorough mixing and grinding to obtain a homogeneous mass, milling and drying), she served on pressing. After pressing "crock" is sent to the firing. However, this is the case in the application of technology so-called double firing. With a single firing (often used in the manufacture of floor tiles) in the furnace goes tiles, is already covered with glaze. When you double-firing, annealed at temperatures of 1200-1400 gr.S, "crock" is sent to the line glazing. There it is glazed (white or color), after which it is applied drawing.

Methods of drawing and related equipment are different – this airbrush and silk screen printing, and more modern Technology, for simplicity, let's say, somewhat reminiscent of modern color printer … In almost every modern tiles are used scarcely more than 3 – to 4-color. That's enough. Read more …