Earth Work

Graders – self-propelled machines, work equipment which is movable blade. In addition to basic equipment – the blade on the grader – set the removable working parts: a small dozer, kirkovschik for preliminary loosening dense and heavy soils, snow, cold milling and other motor grader has a hydraulic system controls the main blade, which provides its turn in terms of 360 and tilt with traction frame of up to 90 . This design allows the machine its purpose and scope: road grading and finishing the subgrade, ballast unit, gravel and sand pavement, construction of low (0.6 m) mounds of the side reserves, planning, cleaning and snow, etc. The main purpose of motor grader – profiling the road subgrade. The greater the resistance and difficult working conditions, the stronger must be the motor grader. Depending on the engine capacity and weight machines produce lightweight (up to 100 kW, 9 m), medium (100 …

150 kW, 10 … 15 m) and heavy (over 160 kW and more than 15 tonnes) graders. Light graders used for the maintenance of roads, medium-building in the road at an average density of soil, and heavy – with large volumes of excavation in dense soils and placement of road surfaces. The design of most graders standardized, it includes the main frame, pulling the frame, a turntable with a blade, engine, transmission, chassis and equipment management system. Traction power, maneuverability and stability graders characterized by a pattern of running gear. Depending on the industrial and technological requirements and conditions of use (and for this purpose, commercially available) graders with different numbers of wheels and the leading axes, as well as the control system and tilt axes of the wheels.

Wheel scheme denoted by LH5HV graders in which A – number of axles, steering, B – number of axles, B – the total number of axles. The greatest widely used motor graders, wheel scheme which 1X2X3. Ways to improve the performance of motor graders are to increase the operating speed of the machine, reducing the time for preparation, reduce lost work time and decreasing the number of passes in the same place at the expense of automatic control systems scraper blade profile. Grader-elevator – Earthmovers continuous action, developing ground or a flat disc with a knife and handed it to the dump or vehicles conveyor belt. To develop a soil knife is lowered to the ground, the motion of the machine he developed and falls off ground running on a conveyor belt. The latter raises the soil to a height of 4 m, moves in the transverse direction (in the dump or in vehicles) at a distance of about 10 m. The presence of the pipeline makes it possible to build low mounds up to 1.5 m of lateral reserves hold up to 1.5 m shallow trench. Thanks A built-in machine principle of continuous layered excavation grader, elevator has a high technical performance – more than 600 m / h. However, its implementation requires a number of stringent operational conditions: flat terrain, the lack of large (over 150 mm) stone inclusions, which can damage the disc blades, the presence of sufficient work front 200 meters or more. These restrictions greatly narrow the area of effective application grader – elevators. Their share in total production of earthworks does not exceed 1%.