The Convective

However, this is not a vacuum in the conventional sense. The vacuum inside the glass also serves as a good service, minimizes the convection that reduces heat transfer. 4. The thicker profile than the more cameras there – the better. Senselessly increase the thickness and complexity of the profile, and so its thermal resistance, on average twice as much as a glass.

So that if they chilled the window – it is in any case, chilled glass, and freezing begins from the bottom! And there are frosts, was frozen to the profile, we simply do not exist. Do not let bother with all kinds of 'design features' and 'technological innovations'. Three-, four-or five-chamber profile – all this had virtually no affect the properties of your windows during the operation. A profile can be easily done even desyatikamernym and put in a box at least ten units of rubber seals – the fact that it's just not necessary. It is no accident, no serious manufacturer does not allow himself to get involved in such cheap publicity stunts. The standard scheme – three-chamber profile, the two loop seals and double-glass (but it's really useful) – is the best option.

All the profiles of the main European producers to do so. And do not believe is not very valid statements of managers of some firms 3, 4, 5, no worse and no better than each other. 5. Thick glass – the best. It is not exactly. In fact, double pane windows, as opposed to 'wood' Soviet windows, sells quite nontrivial idea of limiting the convective heat transfer. This requires some explanation. There are several types of heat transfer – by radiation, by convection and by conduction of the medium. The simplest example of radiation heat transfer – the sun. An example of the heat – do not grab the metal handle of the frying pan – it is hot, although the flame warming does not handle very well pan.

Protection Of Metals Against Corrosion

Protecting metals from corrosion on the basis of modern concepts of electrochemistry described the theoretical basis of protecting metals from corrosion by applying an external current (electrochemical protection) and use special materials to reduce the aggressiveness of the environment – corrosion inhibitors. Modern protection against corrosion of metals based on the following methods: increasing the chemical resistance of structural materials isolation of the metal surface from the aggressive environment, reducing aggressive industrial environment, reducing the corrosion of imposing an external current (electrochemical protection). These methods can be divided into two groups. Movie Star is often quoted on this topic. The first two method is usually implemented before the start of the production operation of metal products (choice of construction materials and their combinations on the stage of designing and manufacturing products, drawing on its electroplating and other protective coatings). The last two methods, by contrast, can only be realized from the operation of metal products (transmission power to achieve the protection potential, the introduction of the technological environment of special addition of inhibitor) and are not affiliated with any pre-treatment prior to use.

In applying the first two methods can not be changed composition of steels and the nature of protective coatings of metal at continued his work in a changing environment aggressiveness. Learn more about this topic with the insights from Brad Pitt. The second group of methods allows to create new modes of protection to ensure the lowest corrosion products as the conditions of their operation. For example, in different parts of the pipeline, depending on the aggressiveness of the soil can support a variety of cathode current density or different grades of oil pumped through the pipes of a given composition, using different inhibitors. The article considers the theoretical foundations of this group of methods as being particularly important to protect ready-made products that undergo corrosion failure. PRINCIPLE Cathodic protection Cathodic protection is based on the fact that by shifting the potential of the metal by passing an external current can change its rate of corrosion.

Power Dissipation

The fabric strips installed on the outer surface of the insulation, prevents the penetration of cold air into the insulation layer. In Depending on the brand TEND maximum resistance to air permeability fabric with a thickness of 0.15 mm is 1000 m2 * h * Pa / kg. This resistance to 2 times the resistance of the paperboard, impregnated with bitumen (roofing) and eliminates possibility of penetration of cold air into the insulation layer. In this case, water vapor resistance of tissue does not matter. Risks dampening insulation under the cloth removed. The steam is able to go vented through the gap areas of the layer insulation is not closed TEND. Application TEND for protection from the longitudinal filtration in high-rise buildings to prevent heat loss up to 30%.

Improved fire security wall. Application TEND eliminates the risks associated with damage and destruction of structures from accidental fire ignition source, not only during the construction works, and during the operation of the walls with suspended facades with all types of lining, including the lining of composite materials. Inorganic nature of tissue determines the high resistance to fire, TEND does not support combustion, does not spread flames and does not emit toxic substances in the fire. Power Dissipation TEND in case of fire is no more than 1.76 MJ/m2, whereas the same index in materials based on polyethylene or other organic materials do not fall below 40 MJ/m2. Fire security TEND is of particular significance for high and unique buildings. Its use reduces the risk of life and risk of fire spread and fire damage to structures, which can reach tens of millions of rubles.

Reduced risk of damaging the layer insulation. Carry out construction work at any time during the year or reduce the risk of not losing the quality of work for installing insulation, allows special building fabric TEND. With its high strength, resistance to ultraviolet light, frost resistance, flexibility at extremely low temperatures, the fabric is able to protect the insulating layer of climate impacts even if not yet installed facing in an arbitrarily long time. Durability TEND when exposed to direct ultraviolet rays is at least 20 years. Materials based on organic polymers that are recommended for use for such purposes, have the same rate no more than 1 year. Durability TEND several times higher than the strength of other known materials. Not being aging TEND – preservation all properties at the initial level – provides guaranteed protection for insulation when operating the facade during the lifetime of the building.

Italian Lighting Art Nouveau

This is a whole world of light, represented by hanging, wall, table and floor lamps in the style of “modern” and “high-tech.” Company I-TRE was founded in 1975. Its founders Roberto Foa Ragatstsi and Angelo have always sought to ensure that manufactured products meet their business requirements today’s market, so much attention paid to the quality and appearance. Active collaboration with famous designers allows I-TRE present models that have every reason to be called true works of art and not once were awarded prizes for the best design. Now I-TRE, along with four other well-known market brands of lighting equipment is part of the group Firme di Vetro SPA. Made from modern materials on the development of Italian designers, lamps, I-TRE not only give light: they are an ornament, creating a new concept of space. I-TRE called light modernity, and indeed it is.

In products, produced under became one of the most prestigious in the world, these strict straight lines are combined with soft curves, a traditional Venetian glass combined with modern plexiglass. Perfect form, perfect performance, a variety of models – all you need to create a stylish unique interior. Products I-TRE is diverse, with each product – whether it is a chandelier, floor lamp or a sconce – well thought out and beautifully implemented the idea of a new concept of light. Pendant 0-SOUND 5, made of lacquered metal and engraved plexiglass, can also be used as a wall. Transparent rectangular plate is decorated five rings, which are sources of light. Diffuser Lamps ALA VETRO TRASPARENTE can be made in three variants: glass, chrome-plated metal or metal coated with white paint. Severe forms, which is located at an angle reflective surface – all together like the half-open box that emits light.

Reliability

Modern concrete fence Most people concrete wall is strongly associated with something bulky and drab, in principle, it is not surprising. Indeed, in the recent past, concrete fence was a big clumsy concrete bar dirty-gray color, carelessly installed on concrete pads. Used this type of fence to protect mainly manufacturing and industrial areas and zones. Few would wish to protect their home so concrete "shield." Today, permanent modular fences are more competition fences made of concrete. But the relation to the concrete fence has changed radically, and it is not just an element of protection against attacks on private possession, and decoration of this same property. My home – my castle! Under this slogan begins construction and equipping of housing. It has become fashionable construction of private houses in the style of an impregnable fortress. One-story, Double-deck – some of them are even adorned with turrets and balconies, everything depends on the tastes of the house.

However, the full sense of reliability, strong walls a little. As in the old days, and in our century's best defense possession is a tall fence that surrounds your earth. If it had been plain concrete fences, more like a brick wall, which is no decorating your house, but now, with the advent of new technologies manufacture of concrete fences, your fence will be not only protected, but also a fine ornament, adorable. Decorative concrete fence – fencing is a new generation, which not only protects your fortress, but also makes it even more attractive and majestic appearance. In addition, your site will be safely hidden from prying eyes, so no one will interfere with your work or leisure. Modern technology allows perform sampling of all shapes and heights.

For private multi-storey buildings can be order intake up to 2 m and discussed his design to ideally combined with a guard house. If you need a fence for a small country house, the better to order a fence height of about 1-1.5 m to the fence was visible house. Low Price on fences Rabitz makes a choice of material barriers. But as a rule, the cost of the fence depends only on the complexity of identity and you have selected items for its manufacture. However, not only private homes and summer cottages surrounded by fences made. Fences are in great demand for the protection of restaurants, businesses, warehouses, nurseries, schools. If the stock is suitable fence height of 2 m without any frills design, for the same restaurant or hotel you can make an exquisite sculptured fence the desired height and decorated with ornaments, stands and other decorative elements. For schools and kindergartens will approach a simple fence between 1 and 1.5 m in height. The main thing is that the fence was correctly matched in appearance and enclosing the object in view of its height. Despite the fact that the installation of decorative concrete the fence is pretty simple, it is easier to install than wooden or brick fence, it is still worth to hire specialists, as well as the general appearance of the fence and his life a major role played by the quality of installation. The main condition Reliability mounted design provides reliable tape foundation. A great advantage of concrete fences is that they can install on any sandy soil or on the soil of clay, but before any work is important to examine territory, to the right calculations, so that eventually the fence was installed well and long.

Change Apartment

Put a new finish flat – this is probably the most superficial level of change, but also equally important to create comfort and coziness in your home. Changing something in the apartment or house, such as flooring or wallpaper, you do not change the layout of the apartment, the distribution of functional areas and assign rooms remains the same. Thus it is possible to change the very atmosphere of the apartment, the rooms do hospitable, cheerful, bright, apparently adjust their sizes and proportions, with the help distinguish textures, shades of color, drawing, wallpaper, etc. Finishing materials and finishing some of the techniques, creating basically seeing the living space, create overall color color, and hence the interior. From decorative trim quality is directly related perceptions and all other interior elements. Finish combines natural light and view from the window highlight the benefits of planning space and conceal flaws. In order to change the finish of the apartment, you need to pick up the necessary materials (color, texture, pattern).

The new finish includes replacement wall, ceiling and floor coverings, furniture rearrangement, a possible transfer of light sources. The changes that take place only with the replacement of trim, require less labor, time, materials and money than overhaul the apartment. Change of finish – is one way to give the interior an apartment or room features inimitableness, arrange accommodation in style, taking into account recent developments in the field of modern materials. Furnish useful to those who either rent an apartment, or those who just got an apartment, but does not know that live in it will be a long time, whose means do not allow to overhaul the apartment. Cost of materials for decoration and of the work, is small compared to the purchase of new furniture and other household equipment. In addition, all domestic equipment can be used in landscaping for new homes. Before the beginning of work, be sure to analyze the condition of the apartment. If there are problems with communication systems and are more serious, then you first need to solve them without addressing these problems in time you can lose time and money, and never dobitsya comfort and coziness.

Laying Linoleum

There are several ways to lay linoleum, for example if you have a wooden floor, then the best way to use dry stacking. They are a little bit and we'll tell. So, for that would have been invisible seams, plank dvol linoleum planks, so that would have got the middle joint of the board. It is also recommended that adjacent sheets are laid with 20-30mm nahletom, for trimming and covering the junction. Just in this way can be laid on concrete base, for this drill hole in the floor and insert a dowel in the bottom for screwing in screws. For a room with ledges, pipes and radiators, it is best to do a preliminary layout, which would further facilitate stacking.

After laying in this case, the excess cut off with a knife. Just to ease installation and better quality of work, you can use the templates (made of cardboard or any sheet material), in this case, moving all items space on the canvas can be put linoleum final weeks of fitting in place. I have a linoleum weak spot, it's edge. Settling the edge of nails in the end you do not get very good connection, maybe, the holes clogged with dirt and moisture falls that result in a negative impact on the appearance and bond strength. Recommended for securing the edges to use construction adhesive. Platform is the same and additional fixation protect the joint, you can use a metal overlay. In the market provided a myriad of options and color layouts. Layouts can be mounted with screws or nails in liquid. Having laid linoleum, give a few days to accept their form and then proceed to the fastening skirting. Recommended: cleaning linoleum, an important element of the general cleaning of the apartment.

The Use Of Solvents In The Painting Works

In a wide range of solvents for paints and varnishes best known is the solvent 646 (P-646). Anyone who has ever had to deal with the painting works, is familiar with the solvent 646. Formulation and technology its production have been developed in the XX century. At first he made for dilution and nitro lacquer nitroenamels, but later it became clear his versatility. Solvent 646 was used for the dilution of various coatings to a viscosity, clean paint equipment and tools. The popularity of the solvent due to its excellent 646 operating properties. Many components in its composition, determine the broad specialization and the ability to dissolve many organic substances.

Solvent 646 – a colorless or slightly yellowish liquid, having a specific scent. The chemical composition are present: cellosolve, butanol, toluene, ethanol, butyl acetate, acetone. Solvent 646 – one of the most active solvents, so it requires accuracy in work, for example, to avoid damaging the bottom layer of paint. In some cases, better to use the weaker part of the combined solvents. Solvent 646 is used for dilution as nitroenamels (eg, enamel NTs-132) and nitro lacquer, and for the epoxy and glyptal (for example, primers GF-021), although the latter would be more correct to use solvents, 649, 650, or solvent. After drying, the paint due to the solvent gets extra sparkle. During painting work is necessary to bring the paints to a viscosity that is diluted.

For this purpose, different solvents and thinners paints. Solvents applied in the manufacture of paints and varnishes. Low molecular weight solvents called volatile liquids with low boiling points. Strong solvent is a solvent with which this macromolecular material (film former) creates a uniform system at all concentrations and temperatures. In the case of film-forming sediment formation when the temperature or the concentration of solvent considered weak. Thinners – solvents that are not soluble high-molecular substance, but does not destroy its structure. In real life, often used a solvent mixture, the so-called license solvents. A well-known solvent R-4 – a mixture of solvents containing toluene and acetone. Solvent R-4 is most suitable for dissolution and dilution of alkyd paints (enamel PF-115, GF-021 primer) or enamels HV and cholesterol. For these materials are suitable and pure toluene or xylene. The solvent used to dissolve 649 film formers, intended for dilution to a viscosity grade enamels NC-132K. The solvent used to dissolve 650 film formers, intended for dilution to a viscosity grade enamels NC-11 for touch up small areas of brush. P – 4 is used for dilution perchlorovinyl, polyacrylate, epoxy and other coatings. R – 4 A – Dilution perchlorovinyl, polyacrylate, epoxy and other coatings. P – 5 A – Dilution perchlorovinyl, polyacrylate, epoxy and other coatings. P – 60 is used for thinning enamel VL – 515. P – 7 – to dilute the paint OL – 51. RCH – 2 – to dilute the paint MCH – 52 and for the production of acid cure for nail MCH – 52. RML -315 – to dilute the varnish NC – 223. Water paints must be thinned with water only. In this case the water must be added slowly and in very small quantities. Addition of water in an amount 5% leads to a decrease in viscosity by half.